Download High-Yield Neuroanatomy 4th Edition PDF Free [Direct Link]
Based on your feedback on previous editions of this text, the fourth edition has been reorganized and updated significantly. New features include chapter reorganization, terminology updates consistent with Terminologica Anatomica, addition of a table of common neurologic disease states, and an online ancillary of board-style review questions. To make the most effective use of this book, study the computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance images carefully and read the legends. Test your knowledge of each topic area with board-style questions provided online. Finally, remember these tips as you scan the chapters:
Chapter 1: What is the difference between Lewy and Hirano bodies? Nerve cells contain Nissl substance in their perikarya and dendrites but not in their axons. Remember that Nissl substance (rough endoplasmic reticulum) plays a role in protein synthesis. Study Figure 1-3 on the localization and prevalence of common brain and spinal cord tumors. Remember that in adults, glioblastoma multiforme is the most common brain tumor, followed by astrocytoma and meningioma. In children, astrocytoma is the most common brain tumor, followed by medulloblastoma and ependymoma. In the spinal cord, ependymoma is the most common tumor.
Chapter 2: The neural crest and its derivatives, the dual origin of the pituitary gland, and the difference between spina bifida and the Arnold-Chiari malformation are presented. Study the figures that illustrate the Arnold-Chiari and Dandy-Walker malformations.
Chapter 3: The mini-atlas provides you with the essential examination structures labeled on computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance images.
Chapter 4: Cerebrospinal fluid pathways are well demonstrated in Figure 4-1. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the choroid plexus and absorbed by the arachnoid villi that jut into the venous sinuses.
Chapter 5: The essential arteries and the functional areas that they irrigate are shown. Study the carotid and vertebral angiograms and the epidural and subdural hematomas in computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance images.
Chapter 6: The adult spinal cord terminates (conus terminalis) at the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra. The newborn’s spinal cord extends to the third lumbar vertebra. In adults, the cauda equina extends from vertebral levels L-2 to Co.
Chapter 7: The important anatomy of the autonomic nervous system is clearly seen in Figures 7-1 and 7-2.
Chapter 8: The tracts of the spinal cord are reduced to four: corticospinal (pyramidal), dorsal columns, pain and temperature, and Horner’s. Know them cold.
Chapter 9: Study the eight classic national board lesions of the spinal cord. Four heavy hitters are the Brown-Sequard syndrome, B12 avitaminosis (subacute combined degeneration), syringomyelia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease).
Chapter 10: Study the transverse sections of the brain stem and localize the cranial nerve nuclei. Study the ventral surface of the brain stem and identify the exiting and entering cranial nerves. On the dorsal surface of the brain stem, identify the only exiting cranial nerve, the trochlear nerve.
Chapter 11: This chapter on the cranial nerves is pivotal. It spawns more neuroanatomy examination questions than any other chapter. Carefully study all of the figures and legends. The seventh cranial nerve deserves special consideration (see Figures 11-5 and 11-6). Understand the difference between an upper motor neuron and a lower motor neuron (Bell’s palsy).
Chapter 12: Cranial nerve (CN) V-1 is the afferent limb of the corneal reflex. CN V-1, V-2, III, IV, and VI and the postganglionic sympathetic fibers are all found in the cavernous sinus.
Chapter 13: Figure 13-1 shows the auditory pathway. What are the causes of conduction and sensorineural deafness? Describe the Weber and Rinne tuning fork tests. Remember that the auditory nerve and the organ of Corti are derived from the otic placode.
Chapter 14: This chapter describes the two types of vestibular nystagmus: postrotational and caloric (COWS acronym). Vestibuloocular reflexes in the unconscious patient are also discussed (see Figure 14-3).
Chapter 15: Know the lesions of the visual system. How are quadrantanopias created? There are two major lesions of the optic chiasm. Know them! What is Meyer’s loop?
Chapter 16: The three most important lesions of the brain stem are occlusion of the anterior spinal artery (Figure 16-1), occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (Figure 16-1), and medial longitudinal fasciculus syndrome (Figure 16-2). Weber’s syndrome is the most common midbrain lesion (Figure 16-3).
Chapter 17: Figure 17-1 shows everything you need to know about what goes in and what comes out of the thalamus. Know the anatomy of the internal capsule; it will be on the examination. What is the blood supply of the internal capsule (stroke)?
Chapter 18: Figures 18-1 and 18-2 show that the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei synthesize and release antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. The suprachiasmatic nucleus receives direct input from the retina and plays a role in the regulation of circadian rhythms.
Chapter 19: Bilateral lesions of the amygdala result in Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Recall the triad hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and psychic blindness. Memory loss is associated with bilateral lesions of the hippocampus. Wernicke’s encephalopathy results from a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). Lesions are found in the mamillary bodies, thalamus, and midbrain tegmentum (Figure 19-3). Know the Papez circuit, a common board question.
Chapter 20: Figure 20-1 shows the most important cerebellar circuit. The inhibitory -aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic Purkinje cells give rise to the cerebello-dentatothalamic tract. What are mossy and climbing fibers?
Chapter 21: Figure 21-6 shows the circuitry of the basal ganglia and their associated neurotransmitters. Parkinson’s disease is associated with a depopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra. Huntington’s disease results in a loss of nerve cells in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Hemiballism results from infarction of the contralateral subthalamic nucleus.
Chapter 22: This chapter describes the cortical localization of functional areas of the brain. How does the dominant hemisphere differ from the nondominant hemisphere? Figure 22-5 shows the effects of various major hemispheric lesions. What symptoms result from a lesion of the right inferior parietal lobe? What is Gerstmann’s syndrome?
Chapter 23: In this chapter, the pathways of the major neurotransmitters are shown in separate brain maps. Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter of the brain; GABA is the major inhibitory transmitter. Purkinje cells of the cerebellum are GABA-ergic. In Alzheimer’s disease, there is a loss of acetylcholinergic neurons in the basal nucleus of Meynert. In Parkinson’s disease, there is a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra.
Chapter 24: This chapter describes apraxia, aphasia, and dysprosody. Be able to differentiate Broca’s aphasia from Wernicke’s aphasia. What is conduction aphasia? This is board-relevant material.
While we have worked hard to ensure accuracy, we appreciate that some errors and omissions may have escaped our attention. We would welcome your comments and suggestions to improve this book in subsequent editions.